For thousands of years, humans have been resourceful, making tools out of stone, wood, clay, and metal. In the land that is now occupied by Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was once a highly fertile region dominated by ancient civilizations. It was from this land that the first civilization is thought to have originated. From there, civilization is said to have gradually progressed up to the present level of technology. It is commonly thought that prior to the Mesopotamian culture, humans were primitive cave dwellers. But, is this really the case?
The Bagdad Battery
Ancient Egyptian Model Plane?
Strange Embossed Images in the Temple of Abydos
|Each stone fits perfectly.|
The Great Pyramid
|Notice how straight the edges are?|
Besides being precisely cut, some of the stones of the great Pyramid weigh between 2 and 50 tons. The King’s Chamber was constructed of massive, red granite stones that each weigh 50 tons. The reason for this is to support the immensely heavy roof. How hundreds of slaves could move 50 ton stones into place using only their own muscle power is beyond belief, especially when one considers that there was only an area large enough for six workers when the muscle power of at least 2,000 workers was needed in moving the 50-ton stones into place (10). Incredibly, the distance to the quarry where the 50-ton stones were cut from is 600 miles away from the location of the Great Pyramid. It has been theorized that thousands of workers constructed a ramp up to the top of the Great pyramid, which is nearly 500 feet tall (10).
P. Garde-Hanson, a Danish civil engineer, has calculated that such a ramp would require 17.5 million cubic meters of material (such as rock, sand, or dirt) in its construction (10). This is more than seven times the amount of building material that went into constructing the Great Pyramid itself (10). If the pyramid were constructed in Cheops’ reign, according to P. Garde-Hanson, 240,000 workers were required to build the ramp. Such an enormous ramp would then take more than 300,000 workers eight years to dismantle (10). Besides all this, none of the corners of the precisely-cut stones were damaged when set into place and they fit tightly together (10). We might also mention that the four sides of the Great Pyramid align precisely with the compass points. The precision of this alignment is incredible, being off from perfect alignment by less than 0.06 percent (10). The thirteen-acre base of the Great Pyramid is carved into bedrock and has been perfectly leveled, with laser-like precision, to a tolerance of less than half an inch across the entire base (12). Could the ancient Egyptians really have completed such a massive project that involved moving perfectly-cut stones hundreds of miles and setting the stones into place so that they fit tightly together, with almost no variation from perfection, on a 13-acre base that is almost perfectly flat, cut into solid bedrock? But, if the ancient Egyptians did not construct the Pyramid, who did?
Ancient Aliens or Something Else?
An interesting passage appears in the Bible (Genesis 6:1-4):
And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
|Notice the train car in the background?|
(2) Alford, Alan F. "The Mystery of the Stones at Baalbek." World-Mysteries.com. World-Mysteries.com, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
(4) "Ancient Flying Machines." World-Mysteries.com. World-Mysteries.com, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
(6) "The Baghdad Battery." World-Mysteries.com. World-Mysteries.com, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.
(7) Beardmore, Roy. "Geometrical Tolerancing." RoyMech. Roymech.co.uk, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
Like cultures today, ancient people created artwork based on real-life subjects. Many cave paintings (pictographs) and petroglyphs (shallow rock carvings) depict scenes from battles (24), ancient people performing various rituals (36), (and fauna, such as buffalo, seen by the native peoples. Sculptures, mosaics, figurines, and carvings made by people hundreds or thousands of years ago also depict some strange creatures that seem to closely resemble what we might call dinosaurs. This leads to a fascinating question: Did ancient cultures believe that dinosaurs were contemporaries of humankind and did they claim to see such creatures?
The Acambaro Figurines
Charles Hapgood, a professor of anthropology and history at Keene State College, learned about the figurines and decided that he would see them for himself (35). After investigating and researching the figurines for 18 years, and after seeing more of the objects turn up when workers dug in certain locations he determined, Hapgood, a self-confessed skeptic (35), authored a book on the Acambaro figurines: Mystery in Acambaro: Did Dinosaurs Survive Until Recently? No longer a skeptic about the origin and authenticity of the ancient figurines, Charles Hapgood believes that they were made by an ancient culture. At the same place where the artifacts were discovered, the teeth of an extinct horse, the skeleton of a mammoth, and human skulls were also unearthed (35). The fact that many of these unique figurines resemble dinosaurs has been a reason the majority of the scientific community has ignored the discovery, passing it off as a hoax.
Shang Dynasty "Saurolophus"
Besides the Acambaro figurines and the Shang Dynasty saurolophus, there are more examples of possible dinosaur-like figurines from ancient cultures that could be mentioned such as the figurine of a Dogon tribesman, from Africa, riding a strange, "prehistoric" creature or the painted pots and vases from the Moche tribe of South America. According to Genesis Park, the Moche tribe ceramics display "with singular realism medical acts, combative events, musical instruments, plants and animals" (1). Some of these painted vases and pots have what appear to be realistic dinosaurs painted on their clay surfaces (1). The Moche tribe pottery collection is currently located in the Larco Herrera Museum in Peru (1).
The Ica Stones
The Granby Idol
Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal
The Anasazi Dinosaur Petroglyph
The Water Panther Pictograms
Angkor Wat "Secret"
The Tomb of Richard Bell
The Nile Mosaic of Palestrina Mosaic
The "Hunt" Mosaic
Stories passed down by word of mouth--some of them originating apparently not that long ago--have come out of remote jungles and wilderness areas as western civilization has expanded to distant lands. Such information by word of mouth has come from the Australian Aboriginees, a people who have lived in the sub-continent for thousands of years. According to the Aboriginees, a number of large and powerful creatures once inhabited the vast expanse of Australia.
In July 1845, and article appeared in the Geelong Advertiser of Victoria, Australia (12). It described the discovery of an un-fossilized bone of an unknown, giant animal. When the bone was shown to different, separate Aboriginal tribes, they all immediately identified it as a "bunyip" bone. The tribes were quite distant from each other and had no way of communicating with each other (12). According to their descriptions of the "bunyip", the animal was big, laid eggs, could walk on two feet, and was considered dangerous (Driver). According to the Aboriginees, the "bunyip" had "the characteristics of a bird and an alligator" (12). One native claimed that some deep scars in his skin were caused by a "bunyip" (12).
A creature that is described as a quadruped with a long neck and a long, pointed tail is said, by the Central Australian aboriginal tribes, to have lived in swamps which once covered the region. The Aborigines call this creature the "Kultra" (12). From the descriptions they give, it appears to be a type of sauropod.
Thousands of miles away from the jungles of Australia, another rainforest spreads its leafy canopy over a vast area. The Congo Basin covers 1.5 million square miles with a swamp-filled jungle (3). Filling up a large portion of the Congo Basin, the Likouala Swamp is the largest swamp in the world (21). Covering roughly 55,000 square miles, an area larger than the state of Florida, the Likouala Swamp has been officially declared by the People's Republic of the Congo to be 80% unexplored (21). Over the years, starting in the year 1776 and up to the present time, people who have traveled to the Congo and talked to the native people have heard about a large creature that the natives call the "Mokele-mbembe" (21).
The natives describe the creature as being generally reddish-brown and about the size of an elephant, with a long neck and a long tail. It is known to devour plants and leave behind rounded tracts with three, prominent claws (21). Thus, it is a herbivore. These descriptions strongly suggest that the creature is a sauropod dinosaur (21).
Ancient petroglyphs, pictographs, figurines, carvings, mosaics, stones, engravings, and legends on the subject of dinosaurian creatures are all interesting and intriguing pieces of possible evidence that dinosaurs may have (or possibly still do) lived as contemporaries of man. A question arises: If dinosaurs really had lived with humankind, explorers, scientists, or archeologists would most likely have found some remains or evidence to concretely prove it, correct?
When scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory used the Carbon dating method to find the age of some dinosaur bones, they came up with an age of only a few thousand years (31). Because this date did not fit their beliefs about the age of dinosaurs, they ignored their findings and decided to use other methods instead (31). Some of these results can differ from each other by as much as 150 million years (31).
Soft tissues normally decompose quickly after an organism dies (6).
(1) "Ancient Dinosaur Depictions." Genesis Park. genesispark.org, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(2) Boswell, Evelyn. "Eastern Montana dinosaur now yields protein that's 68 million years old." MSU News. Montana State University, 12 April 2007. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.
(3) Butler, Rhett A. "The Congo." Mongabay.com. Mongabay.com, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.
(4) Cabrera, Javier. "The Message of the Engraved Stones of Ica." Labyrinthina.com. Labyrinthina.com, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(5) Clark, Ella E. Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies (Civilization of the American Indian Series). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
(6) Criswell, Daniel, Ph.D. “How Soon Will Jurassic Park Open?” Icr.org. Institute for Creation Research, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.
(7) Deloria, Vine, Jr. Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1997. Print.
(8) "Dinosaurs Engraved: Creatures Of Curiosity." TrueAuthority.com. TrueAuthority.com, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(9) "Dinosaurs In Literature, History and Art: Denial Is Not Just A River In Egypt: Suppressed Evidence of Human, Dinosaur and Other 'Extinct' Fauna Interaction in First Century Roman, Nilotic Art." s8int.com. s8int.com, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(10) Doore, Kathy. "Legendary Ica Stones Researcher, Dr. Javier Cabrera, Passes On." rense.com. labyrinthina.com, 14 Jan. 2002. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(11) "Dragons Across Cultures." Draconika Dragons. Kevin Owens, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(12) Driver, Rebecca. "Australia’s Aborigines ... Did They See Dinosaurs?" answersingenesis.org. Answers in Genesis, 1 Dec. 1998. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(13) Gilmer, James Edward, Ph.D. 100 Year Cover-Up Revealed: We Lived with Dinosaurs! Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2011.
(14) Ho, Oliver. Mysteries Unwrapped: Mutants & Monsters. New York: Sterling, 2008.
(15) Johnson, Adam. "Walking With Dinosaurs (and Humans)?" Mysterious Anomalies. Mysterious Anomalies, 1 Aug. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(16) “Jurassic Art.” BC Video. BC Video Inc, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(17) Levins, Hoag. "Finding the World's First Dinosaur Skeleton: Hadrosaurus foulkii." levins.com. Hoag Levins, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
(18) Mayell, Hillary. "'Mummified' Dinosaur Discovered In Montana." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 11 Oct. 2002. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.
(19) Mayell, Hillary. “T. Rex Soft Tissue Found Preserved.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 24 March, 2005. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
(20) Meyboom, P.G.P. Nile mosaic of Palestrina: early evidence of Egyptian religion in Italy. Boston: Brill Academic Pub, 1997. Print.
(21) "Mokele-mbembe." TrueAuthority.com. TrueAuthority.com, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(22) Murphy, Jan. Mysteries and Legends of Colorado: True Stories of the Unsolved and Unexplained. Two Dot: Two Dot Publishing, 2007. Print.
(23) O'Neil, Dennis. "Early Modern Homo sapiens." anthro.palomar.edu. Dennis O'Neil, 9 Nov. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
(24) "Pictographs and Petroglyphs." The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Historica-Dominion Institute, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
(25) Ratliff, Evan. "Rare Mummified Dinosaur Unearthed: Contains Skin, and Maybe Organs, Muscle." Wired.com. Wired.com, 3 Dec. 2007. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(26) "Research on Montana T. rex makes Discover magazine's list of year's top science." MSU News. Montana State University, 13 Dec. 2005. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(27) Roach, John. "'Dinosaur Mummy' Found; Has Intact Skin, Tissue." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 3 Dec. 2007. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(28) Schlosser, S. E. “Ogopogo, the Lake Monster.” American Folklore. S.E. Schlosser, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
(29) Sobol, Richard. The Mysteries of Angkor Wat: Exploring Cambodia's Ancient Temple. Somerville: Candlewick Press, 2011.
(30) Symmes, Patrick. "History in the Remaking." The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC, 18 Feb. 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
(31) "The Bible and Radiometric dating (The Problem with Carbon 14 and other dating methods)." TaylorMadeFossils.com. angelfire.com, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2011.
(32) “The Giant Thunderbird Returns.” About.com. About.com, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(33) "The Legend of Smok Wawelski (the Dragon from Wawel)." kresy.co.uk. Paul Havers, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(34) Thomas, W. Jenkyn. "Merlin the Magician Rescues King Vortigern." Pitt.edu. University of Pittsburgh, 24 Jan. 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.
(35) Thompson, Bert, Ph.D., and Brad Harrub, Ph.D. "Walking Amidst the Dinosaurs." Apologetics Press. Apologetics Press, Inc, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(36) Whitley, David S. Following the shaman's path: A walking guide to Little Petroglyph Canyon, Coso Range, California (Maturango Museum publication). Ridgecrest: Maturango Press, 1998.
(37) Wilson, Tracy V. "What's so special about a dinosaur named Leonardo?" howstuffworks.com. HowStuffWorks, Inc, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.
(38) "World Dragon Mythology." The Dragon Stone. Polenth Blake, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.
(39) Yeoman, Barry. "Schweitzer's Dangerous Discovery." Discover Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 27 April 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.