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Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Did Ancient People Have Advanced Technology?


For thousands of years, humans have been resourceful, making tools out of stone, wood, clay, and metal. In the land that is now occupied by Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran was once a highly fertile region dominated by ancient civilizations. It was from this land that the first civilization is thought to have originated. From there, civilization is said to have gradually progressed up to the present level of technology. It is commonly thought that prior to the Mesopotamian culture, humans were primitive cave dwellers. But, is this really the case?

The Bagdad Battery

In the central region of the Mesopotamia lies a country that has had much history. A country that has seen the rise and fall of great empires, a country that has been a subject throughout the Bible, Iraq (ancient Babylon) is not a location one would think advanced technology could be unearthed from. A short distance from Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in the village of Khujut Rabbou'a, a German archeologist who was the director of the National Museum of Iraq, Wilhelm Konig made a unique discovery. In 1936, workers excavating the ruins of Kujut Rabbou'a, an ancient village near Baghdad, unearthed a pot made of yellow clay (6). gives this description for the object:

A 6-inch-high pot of bright yellow clay dating back two millennia contained a cylinder of sheet-copper 5 inches by 1.5 inches. The edge of the copper cylinder was soldered with a 60-40 lead-tin alloy comparable to today's solder. The bottom of the cylinder was capped with a crimped-in copper disk and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. Another insulating layer of asphalt sealed the top and also held in place an iron rod suspended into the center of the copper cylinder. The rod showed evidence of having been corroded with an acidic agent [sic]. (6)

This mysterious object naturally drew the curiosity of the director of the National Museum of Iraq. Upon discovering the object in the museum’s collection, Konig published a paper in 1940 on his reasons for believing that the object was an ancient battery. He speculated that it, along with nearly a dozen other similar batteries, was used for electroplating gold onto silver objects (6). Other experts have concurred with Konig (6). Willard F.M. Gray, learned about Konig’s hypothesis and put it to the test. In 1940, he constructed a replica of the battery and filled it with a copper sulfate solution. The battery produced half a volt of electricity. Other replicas of the Baghdad battery, using grape juice as an electrolyte to transmit the electric current, have produced a current of just under one volt per battery (6). Arne Eggebrecht, the director of Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum in Hildesheim (16), constructed a replica of the Baghdad battery in the 1970s (6). Using fresh grape juice in his replica--what he considered to be a more authentic electrolyte than that used by Gray--Eggebrecht succeeded in producing 0.87 volts (6). Then, Eggebrecht connected several of these replicas together with wire. Using the series of connected batteries, he claimed to have deposited a thin layer of silver--one ten thousandth of a millimeter thick--on another surface (16). Some skeptics have said that the copper cylinder was used for storing scrolls, but have not been able to account for the corroded iron rod and the asphalt or bitumen cap and why all three components were found together.

The Antikythera Mechanism

computer rendering
Some decades before the discovery of the Bagdad batteries, an object that had rested on the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea for thousands of years, had been discovered by divers off the coast of Crete, causing many historians to change their views on ancient history. In 1901, a team of divers were in search of sea sponges between the coasts of Crete and mainland Greece. They got a real surprise when they discovered a sunken ship with treasure onboard: treasure unlike anything they had expected. Inside a wooden box was an object made of many corroded, bronze gears (5). When scientists x-rayed the artifact, they found that it was composed of approximately 30 gears (22). In 1959, after much research on the Antikythera Mechanism, Derek Price, a British historian, theorized that the mechanism was used for astronomy to make calculations. According to, the “complexity of the gears found within the Antikythera Mechanism baffled scientists, since this type of ‘technology’ was not though to have been in existence until around 1575” (5). Scientists have determined that the ancient device was built around 87 B.C. (22). Many scientists have built on Price’s work, agreeing that the Antikythera Mechanism was a kind of early computing device. It proves that ancient people knew that the Earth orbited around the Sun (5). It also shows that while some philosophers, such as Aristotle, believed that the Sun orbited around the earth, others knew better.

Ancient Egyptian Model Plane?

Ancient technologies are not limited to instruments such as batteries or calculators. Rare and astounding artifacts have been found around the world that suggest that the ancients may have not only used wind and muscle power for transportation. In 1898, archeologists excavating a tomb near Saqqara, Egypt discovered a small wooden object that looked somewhat similar to a bird. The object was stored in the basement of the Cairo museum and forgotten. At the time, operational planes had yet to be invented and the Wright brothers had not made their famous flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. According to the standard view, the first lighter-than-air flight had been achieved by two Frenchmen in a hot-air balloon, in the 1780s (21). When the wooden object was rediscovered years later and put on display, it was labeled as a model airplane (4). In the 1970s, a team of Egyptologists was formed to investigate the object. Because it strongly resembled a plane, a group of aviation experts was assembled to study the object’s aerodynamics and structure (14). After much research, they concluded that it was a glider. When they threw it into the air to see if it would glide, the small craft did so gracefully and with ease (14). When Dr. Khalil Messiha, an expert on ancient models, studied the ancient glider, he concluded that it had very advanced aerodynamics and was similar to modern pusher-gliders that require very little power to stay airborne (21). One interesting question arises: Is it possible that this glider was actually a model of an aircraft that the Egyptians planned on building or had built?

Strange Embossed Images in the Temple of Abydos

Corroborating evidence for the idea that the ancient Egyptians might have constructed aircraft can be found in the ancient temple of Abydos, Egypt. One of the most controversial and interesting finds relating to the idea that the ancient Egyptians might have had or known about aircraft was made by Dr. Ruth Hover, during a trip to Egypt. Dr. Ruth Hover and her husband visited the temple of Abydos, snapping pictures as they wandered through the vast complex. She photographed a wall that had remained after an overlying section had crumbled and fallen off of it (14). This older section revealed strange, embossed images of what appeared to be aerial vehicles. Others, who had heard about Hover’s discovery, went to Egypt, to the temple of Abydos, and confirmed that the embossed images were real, snapping their own pictures, proving that Hover had not created a hoax (21). One of these embossed images resembles a helicopter, having a distinct helicopter-like tail, a tapering fuselage, rotor blades, and a cockpit. No insect or bird even remotely resembles the shape of the “helicopter” image. Skeptics claim that the images are actually palimpsests, the combination of two or more overlapping hieroglyphics (21). These same skeptics, however, have no way of scientifically explaining how the pyramids were built. (We will look into that a little later.) Were these images depicting ancient aircraft, or were they depicting something else, or were they just palimpsests? There is not enough evidence to prove or disprove any of the above possibilities, but the possible connection to the ancient glider model is interesting.

Unusual Golden Artifacts

The ancient glider from Egypt is not the only ancient “aerial” object discovered. Thousands of miles away from Egypt, within the borders of South and Central America, a number of nearly-identical, golden objects have been discovered in ancient tombs and other places. According to modern dating methods, the objects are at least 1,000 years old (4). Archeologists have labeled these objects as zoomorphic, meaning animal-shaped (4). The question is: what animal do they represent? Each objects have a distinct, vertical tail fin very similar to the vertical stabilizer of an airplane. The tail could not be mistaken for a bird’s tail, which is horizontal and fanned out, or a fish’s tail, which does not have side fins directly below its tail fins. What is more, the objects each have horizontal tail stabilizers and triangular wings that are all in the same geometric plane (pun not intended). Zoomorphic objects clearly resemble the animals they represent, so that classification is incorrect.

In 1997, two Germans, Algund Eenboom and Peter Belting, decided to make models of the golden anomalies (14). In one model they inserted a propeller motor, in the front, along with the necessary components to remote control it. The model performed well when given a trial flight. The second model they built had a jet engine with landing gear. It took off by its own power and was not launched by hand, as the first was. It flew smoothly through the air and ended its flight with a perfect landing. This model was an exact replica of the golden object found in an Inca grave (14). In the parking lot of the Florida Mall, in Orlando, Eenboom and Belting gave a live demonstration of their models to a small crowd after having presented a video of their work to a conference in Orlando (14). A question arises: could these ancient objects discovered in South and Central America be representations of aerial vehicles? Assuming they were, the impact of such a discovery, if fully accepted by the scientific community, could drastically change our beliefs about our ancestors.

The ancients were not simple-minded, superstitious people that our culture has lead us to believe. Calculators, batteries, and flying models (and possibly aircraft) are only some of the unique and amazing technologies ancient people have been documented to have developed. Others anomalies, such as the Piri Reis Map (compiled from older sources in the 1600s) can be mentioned, but they are beyond the scope of this article. Ancient technology is best documented through ancient architecture that survives to this day. The architecture of past cultures is interesting, particularly the architecture found in three different locations: Baalbek, Lebanon; Cuzco, Peru; and the Giza Plateau (we will not cover the numerous other places where similar feats of architecture have been found).


Lebanon is an ancient country mentioned frequently in the Bible and in other historical accounts. In the ruins of Baalbek, Lebanon can be found some incredible masonry, unrivaled by anything accomplished in more recent times. Atop a huge platform constructed of multi-ton stones rest the ruins of a Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter, the leader Roman pantheon. What makes this site most interesting is not the Roman ruins but the foundation. The stones used to construct the temple, though fairly heavy, are nothing compared to some of the stones used to construct the foundation. In the base, a group of three, massive blocks, called the “Trilithon”, are arranged in a row, side by side, some distance above the ground, resting atop much smaller blocks (2). The stones each weigh about 800 tons, larger than any blocks used by the Romans-- or any other known civilization--in other building projects (2). They are each 33 feet long and so snugly fit together that one could not fit a razor blade between them (2). Such precision is not found in other Roman structures. In the quarry the 800-ton blocks were removed from, less than half a mile away from the temple, a monstrous stone, weighing an estimated 1,000 tons, rests. If the Romans were to use the technology available to them, completing the task of moving the megalithic stones of the “Trilithon” into place would be an engineering miracle. Besides this, the platform itself is far larger than is needed for the temple of Jupiter (2). Is it possible that this platform was made by another culture, at another time?


Each stone fits perfectly.

Multi-ton stones, fitted tightly together, are not only to be found at Baalbek. Thousands of miles away from Baalbek, near the village of Cuzco, Peru, rests a huge, stone complex called Sacsayhuamán, which means "House of the Sun" (13). It was an ancient Incan fortress that was besieged and partially destroyed by Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro (13). One amazing and unique feature about the complex is the stones used to construct some of its walls. According to, “The stones [in the walls] fit so perfectly that no blade of grass or steel can slide between them. There is no mortar. They often join in complex and irregular surfaces that would appear to be a nightmare for the stonemason” (17). It resembles a giant jigsaw puzzle. Such construction is incredible because modern masons cannot reproduce it if they were to use the tools that were available to the Incas. Graham Hancock, an archaeologist who investigated the complex, said that one of the stones weighs over 360 tons and is located above the base of the wall. The quarry is more than 10 miles away (19). Three-hundred sixty tons is the equivalent of 500 passenger sedans (19). How did the ancient Incas cut the multi-ton stones into such perfect-fitting, irregular shapes that modern stone masons would find nearly impossible to do; and transport them more than 10 miles; and lift them up, setting them precisely into place? Interestingly, the Incas did not claim to have constructed the fortress. Instead, they told the Spanish that “giants” had constructed Sacsayhuaman (13). If this account of the Incas is true, the “giants”, whoever they were, must have had the technology or resources to construct the enigmatic fortress.

The Great Pyramid

Ancient architecture that defies explanation is best exemplified in the largest pyramid ever built. Numerous articles abound on the subject of the Great Pyramid of Giza, but this article will only touch on some of the astonishing aspects of this structure that make the Great Pyramid truly great. Some of these features include: stones that fit together so perfectly that a slip of paper could not fit between them; perfect orientation with the cardinal points; limestone casing stones dressed on all six sides to tolerances of 0.01 inch; near-perfectly-straight, internal passageways; the incredible task of transporting stones weighing up to 50 tons; the impossible task of moving heavy stones into an area where only a handful (6 workers) could stand; the fact that the stones were moved over a distance of 600 miles from their quarry; the need for a massive, earthen ramp and the absence of such a ramp ever having existed; and the perfectly-flat, thirteen-acre base.

Notice how straight the edges are?
We will focus on a few of the above-mentioned items. The first item we will look at is the fact that the limestone casing stones, found in the Great Pyramid, fit together so perfectly that W. M. Flinders Petrie, an Egyptologist, said, "Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joint seems almost impossible; it is to be compared to the finest opticians' work on the scale of acres” (12). Each of these limestone casing stones is dressed on all six sides to a tolerance of 0.01 inch (10). The geometric tolerance for an object indicates the amount that it can vary from perfect geometry (7). Nothing in this world is perfectly geometrical, but the casing stones on the Great Pyramid come very close. Modern technology would have difficulty cutting stones with such precision.

Besides being precisely cut, some of the stones of the great Pyramid weigh between 2 and 50 tons. The King’s Chamber was constructed of massive, red granite stones that each weigh 50 tons. The reason for this is to support the immensely heavy roof. How hundreds of slaves could move 50 ton stones into place using only their own muscle power is beyond belief, especially when one considers that there was only an area large enough for six workers when the muscle power of at least 2,000 workers was needed in moving the 50-ton stones into place (10). Incredibly, the distance to the quarry where the 50-ton stones were cut from is 600 miles away from the location of the Great Pyramid. It has been theorized that thousands of workers constructed a ramp up to the top of the Great pyramid, which is nearly 500 feet tall (10).

P. Garde-Hanson, a Danish civil engineer, has calculated that such a ramp would require 17.5 million cubic meters of material (such as rock, sand, or dirt) in its construction (10). This is more than seven times the amount of building material that went into constructing the Great Pyramid itself (10). If the pyramid were constructed in Cheops’ reign, according to P. Garde-Hanson, 240,000 workers were required to build the ramp. Such an enormous ramp would then take more than 300,000 workers eight years to dismantle (10). Besides all this, none of the corners of the precisely-cut stones were damaged when set into place and they fit tightly together (10). We might also mention that the four sides of the Great Pyramid align precisely with the compass points. The precision of this alignment is incredible, being off from perfect alignment by less than 0.06 percent (10). The thirteen-acre base of the Great Pyramid is carved into bedrock and has been perfectly leveled, with laser-like precision, to a tolerance of less than half an inch across the entire base (12). Could the ancient Egyptians really have completed such a massive project that involved moving perfectly-cut stones hundreds of miles and setting the stones into place so that they fit tightly together, with almost no variation from perfection, on a 13-acre base that is almost perfectly flat, cut into solid bedrock? But, if the ancient Egyptians did not construct the Pyramid, who did?

Ancient Aliens or Something Else?

A modern theory about the origins of the pyramids and other incredible forms of ancient architecture (such as the Nazca Lines) has gained much popularity among UFO buffs after the publication of Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past by Erich von Daniken. Von Daniken’s book postulates that ancient cultures--such as the Egyptians, the Inca, and the Maya--got their amazing architecture (and thus technologies) from ancient alien visitors who supposedly visited mankind in the past. This theory assumes that mankind has been visited by aliens in the past and possibly in the present. When one looks at all the cases of people who have claimed to have been abducted or contacted by “aliens”, the evidence overwhelmingly indicates that people have been and are being contacted and affected by otherworldly visitors. But what are they exactly? The famous and highly respected researcher, Jacques Vallee addresses this topic in his book Confrontations: A Scientist’s Search for Alien Contact:

The 'medical examination' to which abductees are said to be subjected, often accompanied by sadistic sexual manipulation, is reminiscient of the medieval tales of encounters with demons. It makes no sense in a sophisticated or technical framework: any intelligent being equipped with the scientific marvels that UFOs possess would be in a position to achieve any of these alleged scientific objectives in a shorter time and with fewer risks [sic]. (20)

 Vallee is suggesting here that aliens abductions are similar to old accounts of demons. This is quite startling information coming from a man who is a highly respected, scientific researcher. But, he is not the only one to notice this connection. John Keel, a veteran UFO researcher wrote: “The UFO manifestations seem to be, by and large, merely minor variations of the age-old demonological phenomenon" (11). Dr. Pierre Guerin, a scientist and UFO researcher who is associated with the French National Council for Scientific Research, said that “the modern UFO -nauts and the demons of past days are probably identical [sic]" (8).

George Adamski's book
 Demonic activity has been witnessed and experienced by millions of people for thousands of years and there is much credible evidence, including alien phenomena, to indicate that demonic beings do exist. In the middle ages, people actually claimed to have seen elves, fairies, and nymphs. More disturbingly, others from the same period of history have claimed to have had encounters with demonic entities at night. Incubi and succubi--demonic entities that interacted sexually with people--were purportedly encountered. Today, people claim to have seen aliens, or to have been sexually experimented on by them, or both. UFO researchers see a connection between the demonic entities of the past (who appeared as nymphs, satyrs, elfs, fairies, incubi, and succubi) and the creatures today claiming to be from very distant planets.

They did not always claim to be from very distant locations. In the late 1950s, George Adamski, a UFO contactee, claimed he had been visited by human-like aliens coming from the planet Venus. When our understanding of our neighboring planets improved and we learned that Venus is inhospitable to life, the same human-like aliens claimed to have come from more distant worlds, such as the Pleiadian star system. Why would they change their location so quickly? Are “aliens” really visitors from other planets or are they something else entirely?


Did these beings, who now call themselves aliens, actually play a role in the construction of ancient temples and monuments? As mentioned earlier, when the Spanish conquistadors came to South America, the Incas told them that giants had constructed the fortress of Sacsayhuaman. Is it possible that the Incas had told the truth? Could these “giants” have been connected with the demonic beings Vallee and other notable UFO researchers have referred to?
An interesting passage appears in the Bible (Genesis 6:1-4):

And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.

The “sons of God” is a phrase used in the Bible, in the book of Job, to refer to angels. If the “sons of God” were merely human, is it likely that their offspring would be described as “giants” and “mighty men”? And, why did the Bible call the mothers of these giants the “daughters of men” and their fathers “the sons of God”? There seems to be a clear distinction between the two. The women were “daughters of men”. Their husbands were not called the sons of men, but the “sons of God”.

Notice the train car in the background?

The Hebrew word for “giant” is nphiyl. This same word is also used in the book of Numbers (also a book of the Bible) to refer to giants. In Numbers 13:33, during the period where Israel was wandering through the wilderness after having escaped from Egypt, Hebrew spies that were sent into the land of Canaan (modern-day Israel) announced that there were giants in the land: “And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.” Because of this act of “the sons of God” producing offspring by human women, and the wickedness that was rampant and widespread, the Bible says (in Genesis 6:7-8): “And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.” We can see that these giants were against God from the beginning.

One giant would have killed the future king of Israel, King David. In 1 Samuel 17:4--the famous biblical account of David and Goliath--we read that Goliath’s “height was six cubits and a span.” In modern measuring units, Goliath was roughly 9 feet tall or more. He was not the only giant mentioned by name in the Bible. The “sons of Anak”, in the quote from Numbers 13:33 above, were referred to as giants. We can assume that Anak himself was a giant. Another prodigious man mentioned in the Bible, Og, king of Bashan, had a bed that was given this description in Deuteronomy 3:11: “nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.” It would not make in sense for him to have such a massive bed unless he was indeed a giant, and the Bible says (also in Deuteronomy 3:11) that “only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants…” A cubit was the measure from the tip of the middle finger up to the elbow. According to The American Heritage College Dictionary, the cubit is 17 to 22 inches in length (3). That means that Og’s bed was between 12.75 and 16.5 feet long. Og would have to be close to the height of his bed, which would put him somewhere between 9 and 15 feet tall (or even 16 feet tall).

This pharaoh looks intimidating.
 The tallest man ever recorded in more recent times is Robert P. Wadlow who reached a height of 8 feet and 11 inches at the time of his death. He passed away at age 22. He suffered from gigantism, a medical condition in which a growth hormone, insulin, is excessively active (8). People with such a rare condition experience short life spans, joint pain, easy fatigue, decreased muscular strength, and many other problematic symptoms (1). Goliath, who was recorded in the Bible as a warrior who fought for the Philistines, did not seem to have any of those symptoms. The weight of his armor is recorded in the Bible, in shekels. Fully equipped for battle, Goliath would have gained an additional 273 pounds to support (18). According to one estimate, his spear head itself weighed about 24 pounds (15). Is it possible, then, that the giants in the Bible were similar to the giants various cultures, such as the Incas, have spoken of and recorded? Tales about giants have originated from many parts of the world. Some ancient depictions of giant men, in bas relief, have been found in Egypt and in the ancient land of Mesopotamia. A bas relief of an exceedingly tall pharaoh holding three men by the hair is only one of several examples that strong and well-proportioned giants might have occupied positions of authority. A Sumerian tablet displays a bas relief of a huge man sitting on a large throne. Regular-sized men, standing before this giant, appear quite small next to him. Giving all of the above information consideration, is it possible that giants played a major role in the construction of some of the strange, awe-inspiring, ancient buildings and architecture in the world? Is it possible that ancient man was not as simple-minded and as primitive as evolutionists and textbooks have made them out to be?

The man seated on the throne completely dwarfs the regular-sized men.
 In conclusion, we have looked at a small number of anomalies (there are many more), starting with ancient technologies that defy standard explanation. The presence of ancient batteries, computation devices, airplane models, and incredible edifices made of perfectly-shaped, multi-ton stones placed together so closely that razor blades could not fit between them are only some of the pieces of evidence one could look at which prove that ancient man was not as primitive or as simple-minded as is commonly thought. All of the above evidence also indicates that some ancient cultures had received knowledge, engineering aid, and technology that exceeded the limits of their own abilities. The presence of legends and the accounts around the world about giants, the depictions of giants in ancient artwork, and the description of giants in the Bible all give credence to the possibility that the giant offspring of the “sons of God” and the “daughters of men” contributed to the technology and architecture of ancient cultures and civilizations.
  (Click below to see the Works Cited list.)

Works Cited

(1) "Acromegaly." PubMed Health. A.D.A.M., Inc, 25 Nov. 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(2) Alford, Alan F. "The Mystery of the Stones at Baalbek.", n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(3) The American Heritage College Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Print.

(4) "Ancient Flying Machines.", n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(5) "The Antikythera Mechanism.", n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(6) "The Baghdad Battery.", n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.

(7) Beardmore, Roy. "Geometrical Tolerancing." RoyMech., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(8) Ferry, Robert J. Jr., Melanie Shim. "Gigantism and Acromegaly." Medscape Reference. MD LLC, 8 Jul, 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(9) Flynn, David. "UFOs & the Bible: Genesis 6 & Nephilim 101.", n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(10) Gray, Mark. "The Great Pyramid, Egypt.", n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.

(11) Keel, John. Operation Trojan Horse. Atlanta: Illuminet Press, 1996. Print.

(12) Larsen, David. "Technological anomalies in the contstruction of the Great Pyramids." Clarity Digital Group, 2 Oct. 2010. Web. 7 Dec. 2011.

(13) "The Mighty Fortress of Sacsayhuamán." Rediscover Machu Picchu, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(14) "OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) & ANCIENT HIGH TECHNOLOGY--Evidence of Noah's Flood?", n.d.

(15) "Perry Stone, Angels." Oracle Network. OracleMedia, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(16) "Riddle of 'Baghdad's batteries.'" BBC, 27 Feb. 2003. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(17) "Sacsayhuaman (Saqsaywaman) - Introduction.", n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(18) "I Samuel Chapter 17.", n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

(19) "Top Eleven Mysterious Mysteries of the Pre-Columbian Americas That We Decided to Cram Into One Article....Page 54.", n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2011.

(20) Vallee, Jacques. Confrontations: A Scientist’s Search for Alien Contact. New York: Ballantine Books, 1991. Print.

(21) Wagner, Stephen. "Could Ancient Man Fly?", n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

(22) "What is the Antikythera Mechanism?" Antikythera Mechanism, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.


  1. Joel, you are right in my wheelhouse. I love this stuff!

    Similar to the pyramids and large stones in Lebanon and about the huge Moai heads on Easter Island? They always fascinated me, and the newest discover just in the last few months about this already gigantic statues is the fact that THEY HAVE BODIES beneath the surface of the ground. The Moai are nearly twice the size and weight of what they originally thought to be!

    1. That is some interesting info. Thanks for the comment.

  2. I love this stuff, too--all of the ancient mysteries are fascinating to me. Looking forward to reading your other posts; thanks so much for sharing this information!


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